Environmental science is a multidisciplinary science integrating physical, chemical, biological and social factors of earth and composite exploration of environmental issues. The word environment is derived from the French word �environner’ meaning �to surround’. The subsets of environmental sciences include atmospheric science, ecology, soil and earth science, geo-science and topographical conservation. The four basic components of environment are atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Atmospheric science elaborates the life sustainability on earth and action of chemicals on living race. Hydrosphere covers different water resources such as ponds, lakes, seas, oceans, river, streams, reservoirs, groundwater, icecaps and glaciers. Lithosphere concentrates on the minerals, air and organic matter and is the earth’s outer mantle. Lastly, biosphere details the state of living organisms and their interactions with the environment. Physical, biological and cultural elements form the basis for understanding environmental science. The interactions between the elements establish the relationship of individual/community with the milieus. Space, land, water, rocks and minerals are the physical elements; microbes, plants, animals and human are composed biological elements; and social, economic and constitutional factors make cultural element.
Natural resources are the materials obtained from the nature being useful and valuable for humans. Renewable and non-renewable resources are the fundamental supplies for the living forms. Forest, solar and wind energy are renewable resources that are always available whereas mineral, coal and ore cannot be reloaded by natural ways, hence are non-renewable resources. The resources and dynamisms present in an environment is made use by the surrounding living organisms and for their survival, energy consumption and waste deduction becomes primary requisite. Ecosystem in an environment is cohesiveentity embracing flora, fauna and microbial milieu. Changes, adaptations and tolerance areprecisely practicedand solar energy drive the ecosystem to function energetically. The structure of the ecosystem implicates the a biotic system (water, carbon dioxide, inorganic salts, organic compounds and dissolved oxygen) with producers and consumers. Solar energy transformation to food energy, energy flow cycles, inorganic flow switches, plant growth, and bionetwork throughput are the essential functions of ecosystem.
Human beings have habituated to altering to the needs, demands and desires of environment. Innovative technologies even though specify safe and comfortable life; pollution hazard and population concerns are inspected constantly. The importance of environmental science is addressing the environmental issues and taking measures to maintain challenging conservational distributions: biodiversity conservation, pollution control strategies, government and institutional regulations against environmental hazards, managing population explosion and public alertness to consequences of ecosystem deprivation. Biodiversity conservation, preserving parks, sanctuaries and forests reduce animal extinction rate. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are an internationally designed biosphere reserve. The environmental science instructs the significance of fortification, fabrication and conservation of convoluted surrounding.